The rand_bytes function binds to RAND_bytes in OpenSSL to generate cryptographically strong pseudo-random bytes. See the OpenSSL documentation for what this means.

rnd <- rand_bytes(10)
print(rnd)
  7a 1d 10 08 0c ee a2 5f 5a 75

Bytes are 8 bit and hence can have 2^8 = 256 possible values.

as.numeric(rnd)
  122  29  16   8  12 238 162  95  90 117

Each random byte can be decomposed into 8 random bits (booleans)

x <- rand_bytes(1)
as.logical(rawToBits(x))
 FALSE  TRUE  TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE  TRUE  TRUE

## Secure Random Numbers

rand_num is a simple (2 lines) wrapper to rand_bytes to generate random numbers (doubles) between 0 and 1.

rand_num(10)
  0.05458211 0.21380708 0.29550414 0.56545061 0.55544752 0.77186432
 0.08360704 0.28070900 0.89521211 0.30435000

To map random draws from [0,1] into a probability density, we can use a Cumulative Distribution Function. For example we can combine qnorm and rand_num to simulate rnorm:

# Secure rnorm
x <- qnorm(rand_num(1000), mean = 100, sd = 15)
hist(x) Same for discrete distributions:

# Secure rbinom
y <- qbinom(rand_num(1000), size = 20, prob = 0.1)
hist(y, breaks = -.5:(max(y)+1)) 