The package `discretefit`

implements Monte Carlo simulations for goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests for discrete distributions. This includes tests based on the root-mean-square statistic, the Chi-squared statistic, the log-likelihood-ratio (*G*^{2}) statistic, the Freeman-Tukey (Hellinger-distance) statistic, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, and the Cramer-von Mises statistic.

Simulations are written in C++ (utilizing `Rcpp`

) and are considerably faster than the simulated Chi-squared GOF test in the R `stats`

package.

You can install `discretefit`

from CRAN.

You can also install the development version from GitHub:

The GOF tests in `discretefit`

function on a vector of counts, x, and a vector of probabilities, p. In the below example, x represents a vector of counts for five categories, and p represents a vector of probabilities for each corresponding category. The GOF tests provides p-values for the null hypothesis that x is a random sample of the discrete distribution defined by p.

```
library(discretefit)
library(bench)
x <- c(42, 0, 13, 2, 109)
p <- c(0.2, 0.05, 0.1, 0.05, 0.6)
chisq_gof(x, p)
#>
#> Simulated Chi-squared goodness-of-fit test
#>
#> data: x
#> Chi-squared = 17.082, p-value = 0.0021
rms_gof(x, p)
#>
#> Simulated root-mean-square goodness-of-fit test
#>
#> data: x
#> RMS = 1.731, p-value = 0.0386
g_gof(x, p)
#>
#> Simulated log-likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit test
#>
#> data: x
#> G2 = 27.362, p-value = 9.999e-05
ft_gof(x, p)
#>
#> Simulated Freeman-Tukey goodness-of-fit test
#>
#> data: x
#> FT = 45.599, p-value = 9.999e-05
ks_gof(x, p)
#>
#> Simulated Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test
#>
#> data: x
#> KS = 0.056627, p-value = 0.2377
cvm_gof(x, p)
#>
#> Simulated Cramer-von Mises goodness-of-fit test
#>
#> data: x
#> W2 = 0.12578, p-value = 0.185
```

In a surprising number of cases, a simulated GOF test based on the root-mean-square statistic outperforms the Chi-squared test and other tests in the Cressie-Read power divergence family. This has been demonstrated by Perkins, Tygert, and Ward (2011). They provide the following toy example.

Take a discrete distribution with 50 bins (or categories). The probability for the first and second bin is 0.25. The probability for each of the remaining 48 bins is 0.5 / 48 (~0.0104).

Now take the observed counts of 15 for the first bin, 5 for the second bin, and zero for each of the remaining 48 bins. It’s obvious that these observations are very unlikely to occur for a random sample from the above distribution. However, the Chi-squared, *G*^{2}, and Freeman-Tukey tests fail to reject the null hypothesis.

```
x <- c(15, 5, rep(0, 48))
p <- c(0.25, 0.25, rep(1/(2 * 50 -4), 48))
chisq_gof(x, p)
#>
#> Simulated Chi-squared goodness-of-fit test
#>
#> data: x
#> Chi-squared = 30, p-value = 0.9683
g_gof(x, p)
#>
#> Simulated log-likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit test
#>
#> data: x
#> G2 = 32.958, p-value = 0.662
ft_gof(x, p)
#>
#> Simulated Freeman-Tukey goodness-of-fit test
#>
#> data: x
#> FT = 50.718, p-value = 0.1374
```

By contrast, the root-mean-square test convincingly rejects the null hypothesis.

```
rms_gof(x, p)
#>
#> Simulated root-mean-square goodness-of-fit test
#>
#> data: x
#> RMS = 5.1042, p-value = 9.999e-05
```

For additional examples, see Perkins, Tygert, and Ward (2011) and Ward and Carroll (2014).

The simulated Chi-squared GOF test in `discretefit`

produces identical p-values to the simulated Chi-squared GOF test in the `stats`

package that is part of base R.

```
set.seed(499)
chisq_gof(x, p, reps = 2000)$p.value
#> [1] 0.9685157
set.seed(499)
chisq.test(x, p = p, simulate.p.value = TRUE)$p.value
#> [1] 0.9685157
```

However, because Monte Carlo simulations in `discretefit`

are implemented in C++, `chisq_gof`

is much faster than `chisq.test`

, especially when a large number of simulations are required.

```
bench::system_time(
chisq_gof(x, p, reps = 20000)
)
#> process real
#> 766ms 875ms
bench::system_time(
chisq.test(x, p = p, simulate.p.value = TRUE, B = 20000)
)
#> process real
#> 2.31s 2.85s
```

Additionally, the simulated GOF tests in base R is vectorized, so for large vectors attempting a large number of simulations may not be possible because of memory constraints. Since the functions in `discretefit`

are not vectorized, memory use is minimized.

Several other packages implement GOF tests for discrete distributions.

As noted above, the `stats`

package in base R implements a simulated Chi-squared GOF test.

I’m not aware of an R package that implements a simulated *G*^{2} GOF test but the packages `RVAideMemoire`

and `DescTools`

implement GOF tests that utilize approximations based on the Chi-squared distribution.

The `dgof`

package (Anderson and Emerson 2011) implements simulated Kolmogorov-Smirnov GOF tests and simulated Cramer-von Mises GOF tests . The `cvmdisc`

package also implements a simulated Cramer-von Mises GOF test.

The `KSgeneral`

package (Dimitrova, Kaishev, and Tan, 2020) implements exact Kolmogorov-Smirnov GOF tests and fast, simulated GOF tests utilizing the algorithm introduced by Wood and Altavela (1978) which depends on asymptotic properties.

I’m not aware of another R package that implements a root-mean-square GOF test.

Arnold, Taylor B. and John W. Emerson. “Nonparametric goodness-of-fit tests for discrete null distributions.” R Journal. https://doi.org/10.32614/rj-2011-016

Dimitrova, Dimitrina S., Vladimir K. Kaishev, and Senren Tan. “Computing the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution when the underlying CDF is purely discrete, mixed, or continuous.” Journal of Statistical Software, 2020. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v095.i10

Eddelbuettel, Dirk and Romain Francois. “Rcpp: Seamless R and C++ Integration.” Journal of Statistical Software, 2011. https://www.jstatsoft.org/article/view/v040i08

Perkins, William, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward. “Computing the confidence levels for a root-mean-square test of goodness-of-fit.” Applied Mathematics and Computation, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amc.2011.03.124

Ward, Rachel and Raymond J. Carroll. “Testing Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium with a simple root-mean-square statistic.” Biostatistics, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1093/biostatistics/kxt028

Wood, Constance L., and Michele M. Altavela. “Large-Sample Results for Kolmogorov–Smirnov Statistics for Discrete Distributions.” Biometrika, 1978. https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/65.1.235